Psychological treatments occupy an important place in evidence-based mental health treatments. Now is an exciting time to fuel treatment research: a pressing demand for improvements is poised alongside new opportunities from closer links with sister scientific and clinical disciplines. The need to improve mental health treatment is great; even the best treatments do not work for everyone, treatments have not been developed for many mental disorders, and the implementation of treatments needs to address worldwide scalability. Psychological treatments have yet to benefit from numerous innovations that have occurred in science, particularly those that have emerged in the past 20 years, and arguably vice versa. This Commission comprises ten parts that each outline an area in which we see substantial opportunity and scope for advancements that will move psychological treatments research forward.